We propose an updated conceptual framework in which we identified, expanded, and integrated four constructs that are important in the conceptualization of the process and outcomes of physical training: (1) formal introduction of a new measurable component ‘training effects’, a higher-order construct resulting from the combined effect of four possible responses (acute and chronic, positive and negative); (2) explanation, clarification and examples of training effect measures such as performance, physiological, subjective and other measures; (3) integration of the sport performance outcome continuum (from performance improvements to overtraining); (4) extension and definition of the network of linkages (uni and bidirectional) between individual and contextual factors and other constructs. Additionally, we provide constitutive and operational definitions, and applications of the framework.
Professor Samuele Marcora received his Bachelor in Physical Education from the Higher Institute of Physical Education of Lombardy (Italy). He then studied for an MSc in Human Performance at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (USA), and for a PhD in Exercise Physiology at the University of Wales-Bangor (UK). After a successful academic career at Bangor University and the University of Kent in the UK, Professor Marcora began his post at the University of Bologna in 2018. His research integrates exercise physiology with motivation psychology and cognitive neuroscience to better understand fatigue, endurance performance and physical activity behaviour. Professor Marcora has authored numerous high-impact scientific publications and he has been a consultant for many organisations including Juventus, MAPEI Sport, Honda Racing Corporation (HRC) and ASICS.